However, there are very good reasons for encouraging learners to read books. Extensive reading is an excellent way of improving English, and it can be very motivating to finish an entire book in another language. In addition, many international exams have certain optional questions on them that pertain to set novels each year. One option that is now available to language teachers is the wide range of simplified and inexpensive versions of literary texts, called readers (see onestop Shop for a list of readers for different levels). Setting up a class library of novels and readers, writing if you have the resources, is an excellent idea. Tim Bowen and Jonathan Marks, in their book. Inside teaching, recommend the following ideas for extensive reading of literature: Hold brief classroom discussions on what learners have been reading (progress reports). Ask learners to describe a book they like in such a way to make others want to read. Select a short novel which has been recently made into a film or tv series with which your learners are familiar.
The personal growth model is also a process-based approach and tries to be more learner-centred. This model encourages learners to draw on their own opinions, feelings and personal experiences. It aims for interaction between the text and the reader in English, helping make the language more memorable. Learners are encouraged to make the text their own. This model recognises the immense power that literature can have to move people and attempts to use that in the classroom. Attached below are two lessons which draw on a combination of the language approach and the personal growth approach. Both are based on short texts: either extracts or poems. Using literature over a longer period of time the set novel or reader. The above lesson plans are all based on short extracts or poems and can therefore easily be used over one class period.
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The cultural model views a literary text as a product. This means that it is treated as a source of information about the target culture. It is the most traditional approach, often used in university courses on literature. The cultural model will examine the social, political and historical background to a text, literary movements and genres. There is no specific language work done on a text.
This approach tends to be quite teacher-centred. The language model aims to be more learner-centred. As learners proceed through a text, they pay attention to the way language is used. They come to grips with the meaning and increase their general awareness of English. Within this model of studying literature, the teacher can choose to focus on general grammar and vocabulary (in the same way that these are presented in coursebooks for example) or use stylistic analysis. Stylistic analysis involves the close study of the linguistic features of the text to enable students to make meaningful interpretations of the text it aims to help learners read and study literature more competently.
Here are a few: Literature is authentic material. It is good to expose learners to this source of unmodified language in the classroom because they skills they acquire in dealing with difficult or unknown language can be used outside the class. Literary texts are often rich is multiple layers of meaning, and can be effectively mined for discussions and sharing feelings or opinions. Literature expands language awareness. Asking learners to examine sophisticated or non standard examples of language (which can occur in literary texts) makes them more aware of the norms of language use (Widdowson, 1975"d by lazar 1993). Literature educates the whole person.
By examining values in literary texts, teachers encourage learners to develop attitudes towards them. These values and attitudes relate to the world outside the classroom. Literature holds high status in many cultures and countries. For this reason, students can feel a real sense of achievement at understanding a piece of highly respected literature. Also, literature is often more interesting than the texts found in coursebooks. Different models of teaching literature in class. There have been different models suggested on the teaching of literature to esl/efl students (Carter long, lazar). How the teacher will use a literary text depends on the model they choose.
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Stories, poems, and essay plays, especially those that are considered to have value as art and not just entertainment (c) Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2003, many authors, critics and linguists have puzzled over what literature. One broader explanation of literature says that literary texts are products that reflect different aspects of society. They are cultural documents which offer a deeper understanding of a country or countries (Basnet mounfold 1993). Other linguists say that there is no inherent quality to a literary text that makes a literary text, rather it is the interpretation that the reader gives to the text (Eagleton 1983). This brings us back to the above definition in the sense that literature is only literature if it is considered as art. Before doing any study of a literary text with your learners, one idea would be to ask them what they think literature. . Attached below is a short discussion lesson you can do with your students on the subject What is literature? There are many good reasons for using literature in the classroom.
Maybe the modesty, and the true honest nature of Albrecht Dürer. By lindsay clandfield, an article discussing ways to use literature in the efl/esl classroom. Literature has been a subject of study in many countries at a secondary or tertiary level, but until recently has not been given much emphasis in the efl/esl classroom. It has only been since the 1980s that this area has attracted more interest among efl teachers. The purpose of this article is to look at some of the issues and ways in which literature can be exploited in the classroom. There handwriting are also links to classroom activities and lessons with literature that you can download and use straight away. First of all, any method or approach towards using literature in the classroom must take as a starting point the question: What is literature? The macmillan English Dictionary gives the following definition: literature / noun.
him. We cannot really understand the artists personality unless we immerse ourselves in the study of his art, life and times. And this is the purpose of this site, to offer an in-depth look at Dürers art and his life. Biography is provided both in a short version, and in detail. And we will look at his works, engravings, paintings, and drawings, trying to discover the artists deepest thoughts, as it is said that, if you want to learn anything of his mind, search for it in his pictures. That would be the only way to discover Dürer. Apparently, none of his literary works would reveal any insight into his real heart, everything is written with cold, laconic precision. Was it really cold? What lies behind that?
The revival of the essay classical spirit of Antiquity inspired the new, original conceptions in art. The movement influenced the art more than the literature, with engravings, woodcuts, and paintings reflecting the new thinking. The study of Dürers works requires more imaginative effort than the works of the Italian Renaissance artists. In a typical German fashion, his art sometimes disregards the outward beauty of form, with the main intent of revealing the inner life. The art is subordinated to the revelation of the real, the inward, which latter was the subject of investigation for German philosophers like kant and Schopenhauer. And, like in the case of early german painters, the expression of the inner, emotional life, remained the ideal of Dürer. A true humanist of the time, he has an impressive contribution to literature, and according to his friend Camerarius, dürer was a master of natural sciences and mathematics. He wrote treatises on measurement, fortifications, proportion, and on artistic theory. His most important work is "Human Proportions containing the results of a life-long, patient study.
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Albrecht Dürer was not only the greatest artist of the northern Renaissance, but also a unique personality, his genius coexisting with a pure, noble character. Indeed, looking at his self portraits, we discover the handsome man he was, with his face reflecting the purity of his soul and his intelligence. Self-Portrait, 1498 - detail, museo del Prado, madrid, dream his contemporaries were impressed by his physical appearance, and his mental and moral qualities, which were no less remarkable. Camerarius writes that such were the sweetness and charm of his language that listeners were always sorry when he had finished speaking. Philipp Melanchthon, writing after his friend death, said that his art, great as it was, was his least merit, as in his eyes, Albrecht the Christian was worth even more than the artist. Among all the artists investigating the classical in search of new principles of art, Albrecht Dürer stands supreme. He studied the art principles, made rigorous theoretical observations, meticulously recorded the results of his investigations, and then he gave the resulting written instructions to his contemporaries. In the 16th Century, the city was the chief centre of the german artistic life.