This one person must fill a number of different roles at the same time. These roles are: (1) chief of state, (2) chief executive, (3) chief administrator, (4) chief diplomat, (5) commander in chief, (6) chief legislator, (7) party chief, and (8) chief ief of state refers to add the President as the head of the government. He is the symbol of all the people. In the United States, the President also rules over the government. In many countries, the chief of state reigns over government but does not rule. Examples of this can be found in England, denmark, japan, Italy, and Germany. Congress and the President, the framers of the. Constitution created a presidency that must win cooperation from Congress to get the work of government done.
As in the case of the British King so in that of the President of the Indian Republic, there is a gap between the theory and practice. In theory, the powers described above belong to the President. But in reality they belong to him only in formal sense. In other words, his powers are nominal. The powers which in theory belong to the President are, in practice exercised by the cabinet. The President is a titular head of the Union. Like the British King, he is only a constitutional ruler. The real executive of the Union is the cabinet which is a responsible body, answerable for its policies and actions to the President. There is only one President of the United States.
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At the commencement of the the first session of the parliament every year, he delivers and address. Advertisements: every bill passed by parliament must received the Presidents assent before it can become an Act. The President may give his assent or withhold it for some time in case of other than a money bill. The constitution also confers upon the President is to promulgate an ordinance at any time when Parliament is not in session. An ordinance has the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament but it must be placed before the two houses of Parliament as-soon-as it re-assembly and ceases to operate at the expiration of six weeks from the re-assembly of Parliament. The President exercises important financial powers.
At the beginning of every financial year, he causes to be laid before parliament the annual financial statement. This statement shows the estimated revenues and expenditure of the Union for that year. No money bill can be introduced in Parliament except on the Presidents recommendation. The constitution empowers the President to distribute shares of Income tax receipts between the Union and the States and to allocate to Assam, west Bengal, bihar and Orissa grants-in-aid in lieu of their shares from the export duty on jute. The President can also appoint from time-to-time, a finance commission to make recommendations regarding the distribution of taxes between the Union and the States High courts. One of the most important and significant aspect of the new Constitution market relates to the enormous emergency powers vested in the Union Executive. The President is authorized to exercise these extraordinary powers in order to deal with three kinds of situations, viz (i) emergencies caused by war or internal disturbance and threat thereof (ii) emergencies arising from the failure of constitutional machinery in the state and (iii) financial.
The President is the head of State, but not of the executive. He represents the nation, but does not rule the nation. The President of India is indirectly elected by an Electoral College composed of the elected members of both the houses of Parliament and through the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote, voting being by secret ballot. Image source: g, the constitution vests all executive authority of the Union in the President. All executive functions of the government of India shall be carried on behalf of the President and all executive action shall be expressed to be taken in his name. He holds the supreme command of the defense forces of the Indian Union and has the power of declaring war and making peace.
All important appointments are made by the President including those of government of States, Ambassadors and other diplomatic representatives, Chief Justice and Judges of the supreme and the State high courts; the Attorney general of India, the comptroller and Auditor General of India and the. Union territories are administered by chief Commissioner or lieutenant governor on behalf of the President. The President also wields extensive legislative powers, he can summon and prorogue either house of Parliament and dissolve house of the people. He may summon a joint sitting of both houses of Parliament if they fail to agree in a bill. The President also nominates 12 members of the council of States. He may address either house separately or both of them together. He may also send messages to either house.
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The President, even if he is the President of the United States of America, the most powerful man in the world, is not, and cannot be above the law. This is why, throughout history, the concept of executive privilege has been challenged, especially in the face of controversy. Nixon and Clinton failed in their invocation because the court ruled that the information they are protecting will not be detrimental to public security. They have invoked the presidential privilege for their own personal protection and not the public. Essentially, that the Presidents mentioned, are not above the law and the criminal justice system. In my opinion, essay the supreme court has previously addressed the main point of this essay. The President must do his duties per the law of the land: the constitution. Executive privilege is not evil however, greed. The privilege must be used to the interest of the public and not for the person of the one invoking.
In his terms as President of the United States of America, he invoked the privilege numerous times, first is by denying disclosure of former Attorney general Janet Renos sought-for details, second is when he denied to disclose the details of Vice President Dick Cheneys meetings. The subpoena would have required the Presidents Senior Advisor to testify before the senate judiciary homework committee in a probe over fired federal prosecutors. It is completely understandable that the constitution provides for executive privileges. In matters of national security and other matters risking the peace and security of a nation, the President, however he may see fit, should refuse information to the public for the betterment of his people. The writers of the constitution must have been thinking for all of the nation when it was incorporated in Article ii, because a president who panics and divulge all unnecessary information to the public may cause panic, hysteria and depression among his people. Some information are just too classified to be public property as it is detrimental to national interest and security. It must be pointed out, however that presidential privilege and presidential immunity is quite different from one another. Thankfully, nowadays, there is no such thing as absolute presidential immunity.
give the documents to the senate as it is the senate alone that plays a role in treaty ratification. Throughout history, other presidents have invoked this executive privilege. The one most notable is President Nixon. President Nixon invoked the privilege and refused to produce audiotapes of conversations he had with his colleagues in the White house in conenction with criminal charges brought against his office. It was due to President Nixons invocation that the supreme court affirmed the presence of executive priveleges in the constitution but denying the absolute privileges. Bill Clinton also invoked the privilege but was denied by court. And called the former Presidents aides to testify about the lewinsky scandal. The most recent invocation of executive privileges is that of President Bush.
The President can issue a presidential veto on legislation approved by congress; he must accept or reject the writing entire legislation. This veto, however may be overridden by a two-thirds vote from Congress;. . Finally, the President annually delivers a state of the nation address to the houses of Congress. In other words, the president has the powers of appointment, executive clemency, foreign affairs, emergency powers, and executive privileges, subject to some constraints. This paper tackles the executive privileges of the President and how it affects the nation as a whole. Executive privileges, in the United States government, executive privileges refer to the powers of the current President and members of the executive branch to resist summons of the law and the legislative branch (Congress). In most matters (but not always the President is protecting matters relative to the national security.
Office of the, president
Per Article ii of the gpa constitution of the United States of America, the President holds the following powers:. . The President is the commander-in-Chief of the armed forces;. . With the consent of the senate, the President can make treaties;. . For as long as Senate approves, the President is responsible for nominating the heads of all of the departments;. . The President can proclaim laws through executive orders even without approval of the congress;. . The President can pardon federal offenses;. . The President can convene congress for special sessions;. .