In the absence of grid power, one or more black starts are used to bootstrap the grid. Cellular networks edit main articles: bootstrapping Server Function and Generic bootstrapping Architecture a bootstrapping Server Function (BSF) is an intermediary element in cellular networks which provides application independent functions for mutual authentication of user equipment and servers unknown to each other and for 'bootstrapping' the. The term 'bootstrapping' is related to building a security relation with a previously unknown device first and to allow installing security elements (keys) in the device and the bsf afterwards. Media edit This section does not cite any sources. (December 2015) A media gpa bootstrap is the process whereby a story or meme is deliberately (but artificially) produced by self and peer-referential journalism, originally within a tight circle of media content originators, often commencing with stories written within the same media organization. This story is then expanded into a general media "accepted wisdom" with the aim of having it accepted as self-evident "common knowledge" by the reading, listening and viewing publics. The key feature of a media bootstrap is that as little hard, verifiable, external evidence as possible is used to support the story, preference being given to the citation (often unattributed) of other media stories,. Because the campaign is usually originated and at least initially concocted internally by a media organization with a particular agenda in mind, within a closed loop of reportage and opinionation, the campaign is said to have "pulled itself up by its own bootstraps". A bootstrap campaign should be distinguished from a genuine news story of genuine interest, such as a natural disaster that kills thousands, or the death of a respected public figure.
Electronics edit main article: bootstrapping (electronics) bootstrapping is a form of positive feedback in analog circuit design. Electric power grid edit main article: Black start An electric power grid is almost never brought down intentionally. Generators and power stations are started wallpaper and shut down as necessary. A typical power station requires power for start up prior to being able to generate power. This power is obtained from the grid, so if the entire grid is down these stations cannot be started. Therefore, to get a grid started, there must be at least a small number of power stations that can start entirely on their own. A black start is the process of restoring a power station to operation without relying on external power.
And so the bootstrapping continues, until we have the full repertoire of different kinds of cells." Phylogenetics edit bootstrapping analysis gives a way to judge the strength of support for clades on phylogenetic trees. A number is written by a node, which reflects the percentage of bootstrap trees which also resolve the clade at the endpoints of that branch. 19 Law edit main article: bootstrapping (law) bootstrapping is a rule preventing the admission of hearsay evidence in conspiracy cases. Linguistics edit main article: bootstrapping (linguistics) bootstrapping is a theory of language acquisition. Physics edit quantum theory edit main articles: bootstrap model and Conformal bootstrap bootstrapping is using very general consistency criteria to determine the form of a quantum theory from some assumptions on the spectrum of particles or operators. Magnetically confined fusion plasmas edit In tokamak fusion devices, bootstrapping refers to the process in which a bootstrap current is self-generated by the plasma, which reduces or eliminates the need for an external current driver. Maximising the bootstrap current is a major goal of advanced tokamak designs. Inertially confined fusion plasmas edit bootstrapping in inertial confinement fusion refers to the alpha particles produced in the fusion reaction providing further heating to the plasma. This heating leads to ignition and an overall energy gain.
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Business edit bootstrapping in business means starting a business without external help or capital. Such startups fund the development of expedia their company through internal cash flow and are cautious with their expenses. 14 Generally at the start of a venture, a small amount of money will be set aside for the bootstrap process. 15 bootstrapping can also be a supplement for econometric models. 16 bootstrapping was also expanded upon in the book bootstrap Business by richard Christiansen, the harvard Business review article The Art of bootstrapping and the follow-up book the Origin and evolution of New Businesses by Amar Bhide. Startups can grow by reinvesting profits in its bags own growth if bootstrapping costs are low and return on investment is high.
This financing approach allows owners to maintain control of their business and forces them to spend with discipline. 17 In addition, bootstrapping allows startups to focus on customers rather than investors, thereby increasing the likelihood of creating a profitable business. Leveraged buyouts, or highly leveraged or "bootstrap" transactions, occur when an investor acquires a controlling interest in a company's equity and where a significant percentage of the purchase price is financed through leverage,. Bootstrapping in finance refers to the method to create the spot rate curve. Operation bootstrap ( Operación Manos a la Obra ) refers to the ambitious projects that industrialized puerto rico in the mid-20th century. Biology edit richard Dawkins in his book river Out of Eden 18 used the computer bootstrapping concept to explain how biological cells differentiate: "Different cells receive different combinations of chemicals, which switch on different combinations of genes, and some genes work to switch other genes.
Using an existing language to bootstrap a new language is one way to solve the " chicken or the egg " causality dilemma. Installers edit main article: Installation (computer programs) During the installation of computer programs it is sometimes necessary to update the installer or package manager itself. The common pattern for this is to use a small executable bootstrapper file (. Exe ) which updates the installer and starts the real installation after the update. Sometimes the bootstrapper also installs other prerequisites for the software during the bootstrapping process.
Overlay networks edit main article: bootstrapping node a bootstrapping node, also known as a rendezvous host, 9 is a node in an overlay network that provides initial configuration information to newly joining nodes so that they may successfully join the overlay network. 10 11 Discrete event simulation edit main article: Discrete event simulation A type of computer simulation called discrete event simulation represents the operation of a system as a chronological sequence of events. A technique called bootstrapping the simulation model is used, which bootstraps initial data points using a pseudorandom number generator to schedule an initial set of pending events, which schedule additional events, and with time, the distribution of event times approaches its steady state —the bootstrapping. Artificial intelligence and machine learning edit main articles: bootstrap aggregating and Intelligence explosion bootstrapping is a technique used to iteratively improve a classifier 's performance. Seed ai is a hypothesized type of artificial intelligence capable of recursive self-improvement. Having improved itself, it would become better at improving itself, potentially leading to an exponential increase in intelligence. No such ai is known to exist, but it remains an active field of research. Seed ai is a significant part of some theories about the technological singularity : proponents believe that the development of seed ai will rapidly yield ever-smarter intelligence (via bootstrapping) and thus a new era. 12 13 Statistics edit main articles: bootstrapping (statistics) and bootstrapping populations bootstrapping is a resampling technique used to obtain estimates of summary statistics.
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A tiny assembler program was hand-coded for a new computer restaurant (for example the ibm 650 ) which converted a few instructions into binary or decimal code:. This simple assembler program was then rewritten in its just-defined assembly language but with extensions that would enable the use of some additional mnemonics for more complex operation codes. The enhanced assembler's source program was then assembled by its predecessor's executable (A1) into binary or decimal code to give a2, and the cycle repeated (now with those enhancements available until the entire instruction set was coded, branch addresses were automatically calculated, and other conveniences. This was how the early assembly program soap ( Symbolic Optimal Assembly Program ) was developed. Compilers, linkers, loaders, and utilities were then coded in assembly language, further continuing the bootstrapping process of developing complex software systems by using simpler software. The term was also championed by doug Engelbart to refer to his belief that organizations could better evolve by improving the process they use for improvement (thus obtaining a compounding effect over time). His sri team that developed the nls hypertext system applied this strategy by using the tool they had developed to improve the tool. Compilers edit main article: bootstrapping (compilers) The development of compilers for new programming languages first developed in an existing language but then rewritten in the new language and compiled by itself, is another example of the bootstrapping notion.
It became a self-sustaining process that proceeded without external help from manually entered instructions. As a computing term, bootstrap has been used since at least 1953. 8 Software development edit bootstrapping can also refer to the development of successively more complex, faster programming environments. The simplest environment will be, perhaps, a very basic text editor (. G., ed ) and an assembler program. Using these tools, one can write a more complex text editor, and a simple compiler for a higher-level language and so towns on, until one can have a graphical ide and an extremely high-level programming language. Historically, bootstrapping also refers to an early technique for computer program development on new hardware. The technique described in this paragraph has been replaced by the use of a cross compiler executed by a pre-existing computer. Bootstrapping in program development began during the 1950s when each program was constructed on paper in decimal code or in binary code, bit by bit (1s and 0s because there was no high-level computer language, no compiler, no assembler, and no linker.
at each stage a smaller, simpler program loads and then executes the larger, more complicated program of the next stage. It is in this sense that the computer "pulls itself up by its bootstraps. It improves itself by its own efforts. Booting is a chain of events that starts with execution of hardware-based procedures and may then hand-off to firmware and software which is loaded into main memory. Booting often involves processes such as performing self-tests, loading configuration settings, loading a bios, resident monitors, a hypervisor, an operating system, or utility software. The computer term bootstrap began as a metaphor in the 1950s. In computers, pressing a bootstrap button caused a hardwired program to read a bootstrap program from an input unit. The computer would then execute the bootstrap program, which caused it to read more program instructions.
The saying "to pull oneself up by movie one's bootstraps " 3 was already in use during the 19th century as an example of an impossible task. The idiom dates at least to 1834, when it appeared in the. Workingman's Advocate : "It is conjectured that. Murphee will now be enabled to hand himself over the cumberland river or a barn yard fence by the straps of his boots." 4, in 1860 it appeared in a comment on philosophy of mind : "The attempt of the mind to analyze itself. 6, this metaphor spawned additional metaphors for a series of self-sustaining processes that proceed without external help. 7, baron Munchausen pulls himself and his horse out of a swamp by his pigtail. The term is sometimes attributed to a story. Rudolf Erich Raspe 's The surprising Adventures of Baron Munchausen, but in that story baron Munchausen pulls himself (and his horse) out of a swamp by his hair (specifically, his pigtail not by his bootstraps and no explicit reference to bootstraps has been found elsewhere.
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For other uses, see, bootstrapping (disambiguation). In general, bootstrapping usually refers to a self-starting process that is supposed to proceed without external input. In computer technology the term (usually shortened to booting ) shakespeare usually refers to the process of loading the basic software into the memory of a computer after power-on or general reset, especially the operating system which will then take care of loading other software. The term appears to have originated in the early 19th-century United States (particularly in the phrase "pull oneself up by one's bootstraps to mean an absurdly impossible action, an adynaton. 1 2 3, contents, etymology edit. A pair of boots with one bootstrap visible. Tall boots may have a tab, loop or handle at the top known as a bootstrap, allowing one to use fingers or a boot hook tool to help pulling the boots.