India is a sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic. The Indian constitution guarantees its citizens full freedom in matters of religion, faith and its practice. One of the fundamental rights and freedoms granted to all citizens individually and collectively is the right to freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion. Moreover, each and every section of citizens has right to conserve its culture, language or script and right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice. This freedom of culture, conscience, faith, following the way of living has been one of the corner stones of Indian social fabric and democracy. There is no discrimination on the basis of religion and caste, among other things. There is no favour to any particular religion and its followers. All religions, sects and their followers are equal before the law. There is complete religious freedom unless it does interfere in the freedom of other religions.
This resulted in the partition and Mahatma gandhis association. In spite of all these tragic events of epic dimensions, Indias commitment to secularism has never been political leader. But gradually he felt sidelined on the pre-independence ambition. Ultimately the portion was agreed and Jinnah had his moth eaten pakistan, a product of his vicious communalism. Time and again, and in no uncertain terms in the parliament and outside, it, the Indian leader like. Jawaharlal Nehru, lal Bahadur Shastri, atal Bihari vajpayee and other have declared that India is fundamentally a secular country. All are first and last and Indians in the political and national sense, their different religions and faiths notwithstanding.
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Islam came to India with Muslim invasions and conquests. Today india is one of the largest Islamic nations. According to 1991 census there are 627.5 million Hindus,.2 million Muslims,.8 million Christians,.2 millions sikhs,.3 million Buddhist and.3 million jains synthesis in the country. The decadal rate of increase of the hindus has been.78 per cent and that of Muslims.76 per cent and. 89 for percent that of the cultural currents and cross currents. Besides these major religions, there are about 183 other religious sects and persuasions.
In Hinduism rites, rituals and ways of worship and prayer. All these sects and religions, and atheists as well, represent a complete and wonderful pattern of unity, integrity and wholeness. Communal tensions, conflicts and frictions have been relatively of recent origin and can be traced back to the British rule. They always followed the policy of divide and rule. The partition of the sub-continent into India and pakistan was clearly a legacy of the British rule. They had divided the people of communal lines; introduced separate electorates to serve their own narrow interests. They were successful to a large extent in sowing the seeds of communal disharmony, tension and conflict.
Have always been the essence of Indian religious preaching and practice. It is inhabited by the followers of many different religions, faiths, sects, way of living and thinking. There are the hindus, the muslims, the sikhs, the parsis, the jains, the buddhists, the Christians, the zoroastrians and many others. The hindus have always been a majority community but their religious outlook and practice have never been narrow, sectarian, obscurantist and fundamentalist. They never believed in conversion, coercion, intolerance, jihad or religious persecution.
India is the only country where civilization and culture has been like a ceaseless and continuous flow since times immemorial only because of its deep-rooted faith in religious tolerance co-existence and non-interference in one anothers personal and religious affairs. Followers of different and alien faiths came to India as invaders, refugees seeking shelters from religious persecution in their own countries or as preachers of their faith and became an integral part of its unique unity in staggering diversity. The Christian church in India is much older than coming of Islam. Thomas was one of the 12 Disciples of Christ and contemporary. He was the first preacher of Christianity in India. The parsis came in the 8th century seeking refuge from religious persecution in Iran and brought Zoroastrianism. The jews came quite early about 2000 years ago and settled down chiefly in Bombay, pune, cochin and Delhi.
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Jawaharlal Nehru and Atal Bihari vajpayee whose commitment to secularism has been well internet known, firm and practical. India, as a country and nation, has always been secular. It has never been a theoretic, sectarian and communal state. In spite of fact that Indian masses have ever been deeply religious, religious-intolerance, hatred, fundamentalism etc. Have never been part of their ethos. Respect for one anothers faith, religious practice and peaceful preaching have been the hallmark of Indian culture and civilization. Unity reviews in cultural and religious diversity is one of the unique features accommodations etc.
communal basis. Jinnahs over-ambition and egoism overpowered his better nature and judgement and got him his mouth-eaten pakistan. Indian Constitution guarantees religious freedom and equality to all its citizens. There cannot be any discrimination on the basis of religion, caste or creed. India is fundamentally and generally secular which means equal respect for all faiths and religions. There are clashes and conflicts between communities but every clash is not communal. Many of the tensions and conflicts between communities have their source in economic and cultural backwardness or they are foreign-sponsored. We should always be guided by such leading lights as Mahatma gandhi,.
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